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The classic narratives are stories of self-emancipation and self-determination.The major developments range from the Atlantic Slave Trade to the Black Renaissance.Yet in Europe, with its ancient institutions and deeply rooted traditions, this new form of civilization encountered greater resistance than it did in that other center of innovation, the United States.The resulting tensions between old and new in Europe set the stage for the devastating world wars and revolutions of the 20th century.A partial list would include representative democracy, political parties, nationalism, religious pluralism and secularization, mass production, rapid technological change, consumerism, free markets, a global economy, and unceasing artistic experimentation.All these characteristically modern things became established in the 19th century, and most of them were pioneered by Europeans.
Who was considered American, and what did it mean to be an American?
Joseph Goebbels, Hitler’s chief propagandist, railed against “Jewish Berlin.” To this day, conservative French politicians extol “,” the true France found in its provincial towns rather than in Paris, Lyon, or Marseille.
Through the lens of the city, this course investigates major developments in modern European history, from the birth of mass politics and the effects of the World War I and World War II to the emergence of modernist art and environmentalism.
Industrialization and advances in agriculture, sanitation, and transportation played a vital role in this process.
Wars and Europe’s changing borders also shaped the cities’ fate.